Household Books Published in Britain: V4 - 1875-1914 (ED)


INTRODUCTION

Original Printed Text:

The Bibliography of Nineteenth Century British Cookery Books and Related Domestic Manuals Published in Britain, 1875-1914, Vol. II, pp. 738 (London: Prospect Books, 1989).

There were many cookery books first published in Great Britain in the period 1875 to 1914. I have found about 1,200 individual works first issued in those thirty-nine years and numerous other editions of the works. Additional to this total are what must be a sizeable number of small promotional publications and fund-raising cookery books in particular, that I failed to find and catalogue despite my aim to be comprehensive.1 As a group not only do the books which are included have much to tell about the food and cookery of their time but they also reflect trends within the publishing world and society as a whole. The cataloguing of the books is a first, vital step towards their evaluation. Although it is not my intention here to explore all their various facets, I would like to comment upon the range and depth of their subject matter and to draw attention to the extent of the contribution of their lesser-known and mainly female authors.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION

Firstly, let me turn to the matter of how books were selected for the bibliography and discuss the following: the factors determining the bibliography's chronological boundaries, its geographical boundaries, and the dividing line between book and ephemera for bibliographical purposes, the subject categories included in the bibliography and those excluded, the guidelines governing the history of individual works such as post-1914 editions of books first published in the period 1875 to 1914 and post-1874 editions of books first issued in the earlier part of the century, and the rules for translations into English of foreign-language cookery books.

Boundaries

The bibliography begins at 1875 because it was about that time that a new mass market in cookery books started to grow. Behind this publishing phenomenon were cheaper methods of book production brought about by improved printing and binding technology and less expensive new papers, paired with increasing numbers of book buyers who came from a growing and more literate population with more money to spend.2 The great momentum in cookery book publishing which started in the last quarter of the nineteenth century did not halt in 1900 and to have stopped this volume at the turn of the century would have presented a half-picture of the oeuvres of several important writers, Charles Herman Senn, Mrs Harriet Anne de Salis and Colonel Arthur Robert Kenney-Herbert among them. A more appropriate end-point for the bibliography is 1914 since the beginning of World War One in that year marked a hiatus in book production and a distinct change in social organisation.

It seemed right to make the geographical boundaries determining a book's inclusion in the bibliography those of the period; therefore, I considered the whole of the island of Ireland to be part of Great Britain. It should be noted, however, that for all of Britain, I have catalogued only those books written in the English tongue since I have not the language skills to research adequately books such as those in Gaelic, Manx or Welsh.

In the period the outpouring of printed recipes and cookery advice was not confined to bound volumes. Small pamphlets, leaflets, single sheets of recipes, and other sorts of ephemera appeared in profusion. For the purposes of the bibliography any publication of 20 pages or more was taken to be a book and catalogued.

Subject categories

Straightforward cookery books, that is compilations of recipes for cooking food, form the backbone of the bibliography and make up the vast majority of books described here. Cookery books outside the standard form and other writings on the subject of food and cookery had also to be considered for inclusion. Not all cookery books are in recipe format and there was a clear case for cataloguing those which present only general advice on cooking such as Ethel Earl's Dinners in miniature (1892), the handful of narrative presentations including Eliza Warren's How the lady-help taught girls to cook and be useful (1879), and texts in the form of questions and answers such as Mrs L. D. Brown's Good cookery ([1881]). General works on domestic economy containing chapters of recipes and cookery advice are described provided their contents are made up of more than one-third cookery; books with one-third cookery or less are found in Dena Attar's volume, A bibliography of household books published in Britain 1800-1914 (1987). Categories of books given careful deliberation were facsimiles of works originally published before the nineteenth century, bibliographies of cookery books, historical accounts of cookery books, gastronomical writings, books of menus, texts about diet, and hybrid books which combine cookery instructions with a related topic such as gardening. A major decision concerned the inclusion or exclusion of the huge number of books about beverages, and it was especially difficult to establish and interpret guidelines for the selection of books about the preparation of food for commercial purposes. I will outline below the factors involved in deciding whether or not to include books in these categories.

Although originally of another era, facsimiles of pre-nineteenth-century books, such as Two fifteenth-century cookery-books (1888) edited by Thomas Austin and published by The Early English Text Society, indicate a developing scholarly interest in food and cooking, as do the bibliographies and historical accounts of cookery books by such authors as Arnold Whitaker Oxford, John Ferguson and W. Carew Hazlitt. All have their appropriate place in the bibliography. I have included books of gastronomical writings of which there were several of note, Elizabeth Pennell's The feasts of Autolycus (1896) and George Ellwanger's The pleasures of the table (1902) to cite but two. Their reflective and philosophical meditations are as important for an understanding of the cookery of the time as the instructional texts.

Although not strictly cookery books, books of menus are described here because the menu is a necessary prelude to cooking a meal and is in the realm of the cook. Moreover, books of menus, like gastronomic treatises, reveal the eating and cooking fashions of the day.

There were many books in the period on diet generally and the role of food in maintaining health. Most do not give the specifics of cooking. I have only included those which provide a substantial amount of information on the preparation of food. Books of recipes for specific diets, such as Mrs Webster's and Mrs Jessop's The Apsley cookery book (1905) for followers of the uric-acid-free diet, are described, as are books on cooking for diabetics. Also included is the large category of recipe collections for invalids in general.

Of the books which treat together cookery and another topic, those whose subject is gardening and cooking, such as Thomas Serle Jerrold's Our kitchen garden: the plants we grow and how we cook them (1881), are usually arranged alphabetically by fruit or

ILLUSTRATION: Title-page (entry 821.2)

scanned image of Title-page of The feasts of Autolycus

vegetable with the gardening instructions preceding the cookery advice and recipes in each entry. Books about mushroom collecting and the cooking of mushrooms follow a similar pattern. The books about the hunting and cooking of game in The fur and feather series have a special chapter on cookery at the end of each volume. I have catalogued all of these books because they are of practical use to the cook and because they focus on the cookery of a specific ingredient. The books on the cooking of mushrooms and certain types of game in particular make a significant contribution in their specialist fields.

A case could be made for excluding altogether books on drinks from the bibliography. Books specifically about making alcoholic drinks can be set comfortably apart from the mainstream of cookery books. To have included the vast literature about wine, beer and spirits would have created an imbalance in the bibliography, swamping by sheer numbers the books on other topics. Furthermore, there are already bibliographies covering the subject of alcoholic drinks: Andrée Simon's Bibliotheca vinaria (first published, 1913; reprinted, 1979) and his Bibliotheca Bacchica (first issued, 1927; reprinted, 1972), and James Gabler's comprehensive Wine into words (Baltimore, 1985); and a bibliography which includes books on both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, A. W. Noling's Beverage literature (Metuchen, New Jersey: 1971). However, while Noling covers non-alcoholic drinks, he provides only the briefest description of each title.

I have chosen to describe fully all books on the making of non-alcoholic drinks only - at the risk of appearing to have been unduly influenced by the temperance advocates of the time! Before the Great War people were not so dependant on prepared, commercial beverages as we are today and to make a drink was then part of food preparation, albeit in liquid form. Such books as The healthy life beverage book (1911) by Henry Valentine Knaggs and Aunt Kate's home-made drinks ([1911]) by Helen Greig Souter are properly cookery books and so find their place here. I have also attempted to identify and describe books which are important landmarks in the literature of tea and coffee or desirable collector's items within that subject, for example Kakuzo Okakura's The book of tea (1906) or the anonymous A cup of coffee (1883). A book such as Drinks of the world (1892) by James Mew and John Ashton is included because it is a major reference work describing the history of various drinks and their preparation, non-alcoholic beverages making up a substantial portion of the whole. Finding the books that met my criteria amid the sea of beverage literature was difficult and, as a result, there are undoubtedly omissions in the bibliography in this subject area.

Cookery books for the commercial production of food and for catering for many people at one time, usually in an institutional setting, have been generally excluded from the bibliography because they either were found to be overly technical, or used special machinery or dealt in amounts which were too large for an individual's use. Among the categories of books for the most part not described are the following: books for professional bakers such as John Kirkland's The modern baker, confectioner and caterer: a practical and scientific work for the baking and allied trades; books about making drinks on a commercial scale; books about manufacturing candies such as E. Skuse's The confectioners' handbook and practical sugar boiler by an experienced workman (1878); books about jam or preserve making as a cottage industry of which Successful jam making and fruit bottling (1909) by Lucy Helen Yates is an example; and army cooks' manuals or cookery books for prisons. However, individual works from these categories have been catalogued if I have judged that most of the recipes make sufficiently small amounts for the book to be adaptable to an individual's use. The line between inclusion and exclusion was not always easy to draw, particularly in the case of manuals for small bakers producing goods for counter tray and window' and no doubt some readers will regret the omission of such a book as John Skillman's The bakers' guide and the bakers' library (1876) which, although some of its bread recipes use over 100 lbs of flour, has recipes for smaller lots of cakes and buns. In a few instances books for the trade clearly state that the public is part of their intended audience and these volumes have been included in the bibliography. Robert Wells, for example, who writes about confectionery and baked goods explicitly promotes three of his books as being of interest to both the trade in general and to private families, and the Alphabetical guide to sailors' cookery (1899) by Thomas Francis Adkins is described in the introduction to the 1926 edition as invaluable to the average housewife. Cake decorating, although a skill usually practised by a professional baker, is an individual art - not a matter of mass production - and can be mastered and done at home by any interested amateur. Hence there are entries for such books as Herr Theodore Willy's All about piping (1891) and Mr F. Russell's Figure piping (1903).

Guidelines to the history of individual works

One aim of the bibliography is to provide the complete history of each work and, therefore, each work first published in the years 1875 to 1914 has been followed from its first edition, or first known edition, to the last edition. Since many books of period continued to be printed in other editions well after 1914, there are entries describing editions which fall after that date. Indeed, a striking number of titles enjoyed a continuous and long-lasting publication, sometimes for fifty years or more.3

Post-1874 editions of books first published in the earlier part of the century posed a special problem: should they be described in this volume in the bibliographical series or in the volume planned to cover the years 1800 to 1874? My colleagues and I agreed on the latter course on the grounds that, not only was it advantageous to tell the complete story of a particular book in one volume, but it was appropriate that a later edition be described in the volume covering the period in which the book was originally conceived. Occasionally, a book which was first published earlier in the century was republished in the period 1875 to 1914 with a different title or a change of attribution. For example, The English cookery book by John Walsh which was printed in 1858 and 1859 was republished in 1883 under the title The British cookery book. Similarly, Cookery and domestic economy for young housewives, many editions of which were issued by Chambers from the first half of the nineteenth century into the 1890s with the slightly changed title Chambers's cookery for young housewives and a named editor, Annie M. Griggs. Such books have not been catalogued here because, despite the differences in title or attribution the texts of the post-1874 editions are simply revised form of the earliest versions. The reader may find for guidance, however, a heading for these books with accompanying comments pointing out their pre-1875 origins. Extensive notes are given in the complex case of the several derivations of Mrs Isabella Beeton's Book of household management (published in installments from 1859 to 1861, in book form, 1861).

There are remarkably few instances where the description of an author's cookery writings is split between the two volumes in the series. Mary Hooper is one notable author to span the divide: her Handbook for the breakfast table was first issued in 1873 and Little dinners in 1874, while her three other cookery books first appeared in 1876, 1877 and 1882. In such cases I have referred to the author's earlier works works in the section for bibliographical comments.

Translations

New translations of books originally written in a foreign language have been considered as new works; therefore, if the first edition of a new translation was published in the period 1875 to 1914, it is described in this volume. For example, the first translation into English of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's Physiologic du gout to be published in Britain appeared in 1859 and belongs in the volume planned for 1800 to 1874, while the first edition of the new translation by R. E. Anderson is dated 1877 and is catalogued here.

SUBJECT MATTER

Although the beginning of the period 1875 to 1914 was more than a century ago, we still share a living connection with its end. Some of the books described in the bibliography are still used, for example, by the girls now women in their nineties to whom they were given as school prizes, or by daughters of the original owners; and the continuous republication of several titles, up to as late as the 1950s, has already been mentioned. There are particular ways in which the books feel familiar. Like present- day books, most are made of cheap paper, either wood-pulp or esparto, and bound in paper or cloth rather than the expensive rag paper and leather bindings of the books of the earlier part of the nineteenth century; and for illustrations, modern photo-mechanical reproduction begins to take the place of steel or wood engravings and etchings.

Also immediately recognisable to the late twentieth-century reader is a characteristic of the mass market, the systematic exploration by writers and publishers of an ever widening range of clearly defined subjects. Alongside the many general manuals, which will always have their place in the kitchen, are a remarkable number of volumes devoted to specific topics. These topics were approached from every conceivable angle and successful formulae were repeated many times over by different authors. This growing specialisation went hand in hand with the dramatic increases in book production in the period. Not all the subject categories were new. Many, it will be seen, had been introduced earlier in the century in one or a few examples. Significantly, the major innovations in modern cookery writing and undoubtedly the most influential works of the century belong to the period before 1875, namely, Eliza Acton's method of laying out recipes in her Modern cookery (1845), with an ingredients list followed by instructions, quantities made and time required to execute, and Isabella Beeton's encyclopaedic and monumental Book of household management which sets out the whole body of English cookery and household practice under one title. Indeed, the several derivations of Household Management showed how the same cookery information could be packaged and sold successfully in different forms; and the Beeton's house and home books series ([1866-67]), which extracted from the mother text Fish and soups, Meats, Poultry and game, Preserves and confectionery, Puddings and pastry and Vegetables, among other titles, was a particularly clear indication of the increasing tendency to specialise, to offer the public specific segments of cookery information. Broadly speaking, by 1875 the form of the modern cookery book was set and its contents roughly drawn. What remained for the writers and publishers of the period 1875 to 1914 was to mine the riches of the new fields and contribute some new ideas of their own, spurred on in their endeavours by the force of commercial pressures.

Ingredients

There were books which treated several different fruits in one text and books about cooking a single variety. The volumes about bananas, currants and oranges were the first on their subjects to be published in Britain.

A number of books were also written about cooking with vegetables, not to be confused with vegetarian cookery books which form a separate category of their own and are discussed below. They range from the ordinary - F. K.'s The everyday vegetable book ([1913]) - to the specific and distinctive Leaves from our Tuscan kitchen (1899) by Mrs Janet Ann Ross. In Leaves the British author gives instructions for Italian vegetable dishes, many of the recipes coming from Giuseppe Volpi, the cook at her villa near Florence. The work's appeal stems from the authenticity of the recipes, the engaging writing style and the volume's attractive design. Books about cooking individual vegetables include Alfred Suzanne's and Senn's Potato cookery (preface dated 1907) and Charles J.Murphy's Lecture on American Indian corn (maize,) as a cheap, wholesome, and nutritious human food (1890). Yet the work by Suzanne and Senn

ILLUSTRATION: Title-page (entry 908.1)

scanned image of Title-page from Leaves from our Tuscan kitchen

was not the first on its subject,4 and Murphy's lecture with accompanying recipes is a reiteration of the case for corn in the British diet which had been debated before in several publications of the mid 1840s.5

Texts which marry instructions for the growing and cooking of fruit and vegetables have a long history. The theme of the kitchen garden and the cook is well represented in Virginia Maclean's Short-title catalogue of household and cookery books published in the English tongue 1701 - 1800 (1981) by the anonymous Adam's luxury and Eve's cookery; or, the kitchen garden display'd (1744) and other works. The organising method of combining plant description and/or cultivation and recipes followed by such authors as Mrs Riley M. Fletcher Berry (an apt name) in Fruit recipes (1907), de Salis in Gardening a la mode : fruits (1895) and Gardening a la mode: vegetables (1895), by T. S. Jerrold in Our kitchen garden and Mrs Cecilia Maria Pearse in The kitchen garden and the cook (1913) goes back to A book of fruit and flowers (1653).6 Within the topic of gardening and cooking there was specialisation of subject matter and variation in the presentation of the information. For example, George Wythes and Dr Harry Roberts co-authored a book devoted to rarer vegetables, while Mrs Berry's book is primarily, although not exclusively, about rare fruits; and two authors, Mrs Maria Theresa Earle in Pot-pourri from a Surrey garden (1897) and its sequels, and Lucy Helen Yates in The gardener and the cook (1911), departed from the usual form and wrote in a narrative style spiced with anecdote.

Eggs, fish, shellfish generally, oysters specifically, poultry, meat, game, mushrooms and herbs are other ingredients which served as a single subject for a book. The most unusual of all, though, was Vincent M. Holt's Why not eat insects? ([1885]) which contains recipes and menus for two complete meals of insects. Holt was not the only author to treat this subject in the period: Peter Lund Simmonds in The animal food resources of different nations (1885) allocates a chapter to various insects and Harry Roberts in The tramp's hand-book (1903) discusses the cooking of snails, larvae and caterpillars.

Although books about cooking with a specific ingredient or foodstuff had appeared before,7 it was in the last quarter of the century that they began to be published in profusion. This type of book remains so popular with writers and publishers today that almost no ingredient is without its own manual and each new ingredient introduced to the food marketplace quickly finds its way into the specialised print market as well.

The topic of cooking with left-overs gave a special twist to the time-honoured general theme of economy in the kitchen. Of the seven works devoted to left-overs in the period, some are on cooking left-over meat only, others are about left-overs of all kinds.

Recipe collections were also built around commercially prepared food products, such as tinned food, gelatine or meat extract. A few texts discuss their subject without bias, such as Mrs Emily de Vere Mathew's Tinned meats, fish, and fruits: and how to use them ([1887]) and the anonymous Tinned foods and how to use them (1893). Most, however, fall in the category I have called promotional cookery books because they unabashedly recommend the use of the company's product(s). Typical are Tinned food with advice and recipes for its treatment; being john Mair and Son's (Limited) export catalogue (1893) by Kenney-Herbert, the turn-of-the-century A manual of gelatine cookery, for use with Cox's Sparkling Gelatine by Bertha Roberts and One hundred ways to use Liebig Company's Extract of Beef ([copyright 1893]) by Miss Maria Parloa. If Kenney-Herbert's, Bertha Roberts' and Miss Parloa's titles purport to teach us about a narrowly defined subject, the great majority of promotional cookery books are recipe collections of a general nature, one example being Good things made, said and done for every home and household ([about 1876 -79]). Good things is the earliest promotional work in the bibliography and proved to be one of the most popular, running to forty-two numbered editions by 1914. Its publisher, Goodall, Backhouse and Co of Leeds, manufactured Yorkshire Relish, custard powder, baking powder and egg powder, and these products feature as an ingredient or a garnish in all of the recipes which are organised under a variety of headings from soups, fish and meats to biscuits and cakes. Although there may have been a few promotional cookery books published before 1875, the output from

ILLUSTRATION: Recipe page from Good Things Made, said and done (entry 436.1)

scanned image of Recipe page from Good things made, said and done

1875 to 1914 was considerable. The subject index lists over fifty titles but there must have been many more that I did not find for the reasons outlined in footnote 1, not to mention the unknown numbers of small, promotional recipe pamphlets of under 20 pages which are part of the same phenomenon but not described in the bibliography because of their ephemeral nature. No stigma was attached to producing promotional works and their authors were among not only lesser-known and anonymous writers but also well-known culinary figures such as the above-mentioned Kenney-Herbert and professional cooks such as Senn who was associated with Royal Baking Powder and with the marketers of currants and fish, Theodore Garrett who touted Palmine vegetable butter, and even the great Escoffier who wrote booklets to advertise his own tinned sauces. Promotional books and pamphlets, no matter who wrote them, represented an early effort by food manufacturers to mould cookery practice and food fashion on a mass scale. Although such publications are still produced today, their influence in undoubtedly less: as the public has grown more sophisticated, the manipulation of the marketplace by commercial interests has become more subtle and pervasive.

Meals and dishes

Books on the topic of cooking for a particular meal had been written before 1875. Dinner, being the main meal in the day, had received early attention8 and books about breakfast date from the 1860s.9 But from the mid 1870s to 1914 a steady stream of cookery books was issued using a meal or meals as the organising principle. One aspect of the great social upheaval brought about by the industrial revolution was a changing pattern of meal-taking. Using literary evidence, Arnold Palmer documented for English gentlefolk the fluctuations in meal times through the nineteenth century, and the change in the number of meals taken from two daily meals of breakfast and dinner at the beginning of the century to the four daily meals of breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner by the end.10 The many books focusing on cooking for a particular meal or meals, together with the numerous volumes of menus from the same period, were not only an indication of the general trend for authors to write about special subjects; they were also an expression of, and vehicles for institutionalising, the new meal-taking routines. Collections of recipes for more than one meal, for example breakfast and luncheon or breakfast, dinner and tea, were in the majority but a significant number were devoted to one meal only.

Mary Hooper was one of the first British authors to explore the subject of meals in more than one book. Her Handbook for the breakfast table (1873) and Little dinners: how to serve them with elegance and economy (1874), which precede the starting-point of the bibliography, were followed by Every day meals being economic and wholesome recipes for breakfast, luncheon, and supper (1877). Miss Mary L. Allen was also early to exploit the theme: her Breakfast dishes (1884) is the earliest book in the bibliography solely on breakfast, her Five-o'clock tea (1836) is the first British book of recipes exclusively for afternoon tea - to be closely followed by Miss Agnes Catherine Maitland's The afternoon tea book (1887) and her Luncheon dishes (1891) is the first British book exclusively about luncheons.11 The pseudonymous Short's Breakfasts and luncheons at home (1880) is an early British work treating lunch as a principal topic. Marion Harland's [Mrs Mary Virginia Terhune] Breakfast, luncheon and tea ([1875]), although notable as an early book to include luncheon and tea in its title, is a British edition of an American publication. Popular cookery writers taking up the subject of meals in the 1890s included Senn, Kenney-Herbert and Phillis or Phyllis Browne [Sarah Sharp Hamer], and after 1900, Mrs S. Beaty-Pownall and Miss Florence B. Jack, among others. Senn, especially, found the formula of presenting collections of recipes arranged around meals to be successful, using it in five books over the years 1893 to 1910.12 12 Kenney-Herbert produced a trio of titles, Fifty breakfasts, Fifty dinners and Fifty lunches in the years 1894 to 1896, and his Picnics and suppers (1901) is notable as the first British book to treat picnics as a main topic.

Each meal was dissected and its constituent parts, whether a particular course or a type of dish, were examined in depth. The arrangement of recipes by course and, to some extent, by dish reflected the system of dining a la russe, a fashion adopted in the mid-nineteenth century for serving the main meal as separate courses of soup, fish, meat and sweet in succession and which superceded the à la français mode of having large mixed courses where various types of dish were set on the table at one time.

Savouries a la mode (1886) by de Salis and Savouries and sweets (1886) by Allen are the earliest books in the bibliography taking savouries as the exclusive or a major topic. A spate of books on savouries, including one on vegetarian savouries, appeared in the first five years of the new century.13 Following a similar pattern, after Entrees a la mode (1887) by de Salis, the earliest book in the bibliography on that topic, came a concentration of titles about entrees around the turn of the century.14

Soups, salads, sandwiches, stew, curry (discussed below in connection with books about Indian cookery) and sauces are among the specific dishes - or in the case of sauces, part of a dish - that were used either alone or in conjunction with another dish as a theme for a book. Soups and dressed fish a la mode (1888) by de Salis repeats the same pairing of subjects as the previously cited Fish and soups ([1867]) from Beeton's house and home books series. Such popular authors as Allen, Jack and Beaty-Pownall all wrote volumes collecting together recipes for soups, broths, stocks and purees in the nineties. John Evelyn's Acetaria: a discourse of sallets (1699) is famous as the first collection of salad recipes in the English language. Despite this strong start, British authors made a weak showing in the subject area in this period. Of the books in the bibliography on salads, most of the works by British authors deal with the subject in conjunction with other dishes and were written after the turn of the century. For example, after Thomas Jefferson Murrey's Fifty salads (1885), came another work from the United States, Maximilian de Loup's The American salad book (1901), then A book of salads ([1903]) on which the Swiss-born though British-resident Senn collaborated with the French cook Alfred Suzanne. A book about salads (1905) by the vegetarian advocate Albert Broadbent, a thin volume for a special audience, wins the accolade of being the first book in the bibliography on salads alone by a British writer. While I have found no books solely about sandwiches, they are a major focus in T. Herbert 's Salads and sandwiches (1890) and from about the turn of the century were treated together with either tea cakes and sweetmeats, salads and savouries, or beverages.

Sweet dishes collectively had been used by cookery writers as a topic for individual books since the sixteenth century when sweet dishes were the substance and core of the first cookery books in English. In the period 1875 to 1914 sweet concoctions continued to receive considerable attention, primarily in the context of the sweet course ending the main meal. Such was the popularity of sweet dishes that several authors and publishers gave them more than one volume.15 As in other subject areas, the trend was towards specialisation and distinctly away from the collections of recipes for various types of sweet dish typical of the earlier part of the century and epitomised by Eliza Acton's Modern confectionery; containing receipts for drying and candying, comfits, cakes, preserves, liquors, ices, jellies, creams, sponges, pastes, potted meats, pickles, wines, etc (1826).

The sticky-and-sweet baked, boiled or steamed pudding, a dish whose roots belong in England after the Norman Conquest,16 was the principle focus of the majority of books. Lucy Jones's Puddings and sweets (1877) is an enticing catalogue of 365 recipes mainly of this type, while Miss Crossley's Puddings: boiled and baked (1902) is more specific in terms of technique. In celebration of the dish's genealogy, the anonymous companion volumes Favorite puddings of rural England ([1899]) and More favorite puddings of rural England (date unknown) in the Cable series present 'mostly old-fashioned type recipes of country housewives'.

By the end of the century cakes, sweetmeats or candies, and ice-cream were increasingly used as single topics for a book. Typical manuals on cake-baking for the home cook were Cakes and other good things ([1886]) by Mrs Mathew, the text of which is in two main sections for plain and rich cakes, respectively, and Grandmamma's cakes (1895) by Mrs Janet Sophia Marshall, appealing for the color image on its binding of a grandmother's head and shoulders. Of the works in the bibliography devoted to home sweet-making, two of the handful

ILLUSTRATION: First page of contents from Puddings and sweets (entry 559.1)

scanned image of First page of contents from Puddings and sweets of titles published before 1900 were British editions of American books.17 However, a spate of books on sweetmeat-making for the home cook was written by British authors in the first decade of the twentieth century, led by The art of sweetmaking (1901) by Miss Beatrice Manders, Sweetmeat-making at home (1902) by Mrs Margaret Rattray and Home-made sweetmeats ([1902]) by Mrs H. M. Young. Books solely about ice-cream-making date from the 1830s.18 Of the books in the bibliography on ice-cream, The book of ices (1885) and Fancy ices (1894), both by Mrs Agnes Bertha Marshall, stand out as thorough and attractive works on the subject by a woman who, as part of her several business interests, sold a wide range of moulds for frozen desserts.

Beverages

Although books about preparing beverages were an established genre before 1875,19 those from the period of 1875 to 1914 are notable for reflecting a variety of approaches. There were three substantial works of academic slant on drinks around the world by Simmonds in 1888, Mew and Ashton in 1892, and Edward Randolph Emerson in 1908. Edward Spencer's [Edward Spencer Mott] The flowing bowl (1899) is a more personal and entertaining treatise on drinks of all kinds and of all periods. Three cookery books specifically for temperance drinks were published in the late 1880s, early 1890s: a volume by Robert Seager in 1888, one by Frederick Davies in 1892 and another by H. C. Standage in 1893. These three books were addressed to a considerable body of people who, by consciously abstaining from alcohol, followed the principles advocated by the temperance movement whose genesis and period of greatest influence correspond to the years covered by this bibliographical series.20 Interestingly, the authors of these books reveal a varying degree of commitment to the temperance ideal. Seager was a true temperance reformer, and a biographical sketch focusing on his work as such accompanies his recipes. Davies, at the other extreme, may have simply been responding to a perceived need in the marketplace when he had published his book on temperance drinks: he was first and foremost a cook and confectioner who had previously written works on pastry and confectionery and cakes and biscuits; and later, in 1896, was to co-author a volume of recipes for mainly alcoholic drinks. Standage, somewhere in between, clearly declared himself to be against spirits and strong liquors but not wines.

Drinks a la mode (1891) by de Salis is an example of the group of beverage cookery books which one might characterise as for general household use, which sometimes included recipes using alcohol as an ingredient, and which did not label themselves as temperance even if recipes using alcohol were excluded. More of this type were to be issued, most in the years 1908 to 1912.21 It is a measure of the influence of the temperance movement at the time that even some of the authors of the books in this group who gave recipes for alcoholic beverages, for example Robert Wells and Miss M. E. Steedman, implicitly or explicitly acknowledge the temperance followers among their readers when they draw attention in the introductory matter to their selection of recipes for non-alcoholic drinks. Helen Greig Souter, the anonymous author of Aunt Kate's home-made drinks ([1911]), is unintentionally amusing in the preface when she presents excuses for including alcoholic beverages while at the same time maintaining that she sought to follow temperance principles! The healthy life beverage book (1911) by Knaggs is unique in the period as a collection of drink recipes chosen for their health-giving properties and for the use of food reformers.

Cooking technologies

The new technologies of gas and electric cookery22 spawned books to advise cooks on their use. Gas cookers began to be used widely in the 1880s and their effect on cookery practice was quick and far-reaching. Mrs H. M. Young's Domestic cookery: with special reference to cooking by gas ([about 1886]) includes a section at the end on the gas cooking range, but it is Marie Jenny Sugg's The art of cooking by gas (1890) which merits the label of the first gas cookery book for taking the topic as its sole concern. Significantly, both authors came from families which owned a business for manufacturing and selling gas cookers. Electric cookers, although introduced to the marketplace in the 1890s, began to grow in popularity only in the 1920s. Given their slow adoption it is not surprising that there is only one volume in the bibliography about cooking with this energy source, May Little's Simple electric cookery (1913).23

The bibliography includes one book on cooking with a haybox, an energy-efficient method using retained heat. Margaret J. Mitchell's The fireless cook book was the first book to be published in Britain on the subject. Appearing in both a London and a New York edition in 1909, the work originated in the United States. The cooking technique was to find a wider and more necessary application during the two world wars.

Three books, all dating from after the turn of the century, deserve mention for focusing on cooking over that most primitive of energy sources, the open fire. Each is directed at a different specific audience: Harry Roberts' The tramp's hand-book (1903) is an eccentric account of roadside cookery and wild food sources for the amusement of the well-to-do rather than the down-and-out; Lucy Yates' In camp and kitchen (1912) is a serious food manual for emigrants; and Lincoln Green's Camp cookery (1914) is a text for the Boy Scouts Association.

Not only did authors write about cooking over a particular heat source, but some took as their topic cooking in a single type of vessel. Seven books on cooking with a chafing dish, all except one of which were first published in the years 1899 to 1912,24 indicate a fashion for that technique at that time. All were British editions of originally American works except Frank Schloesser's The cult of the chafing dish (1904) and Senn's Chafing dish and casserole cookery ([1904]), both British conceptions. If Americans tackled the subject more often, it was Schloesser

ILLUSTRATION: Title-page (entry 934.2)

scanned image of Title-page of <em>The cult of the chafing dish

who expressed the most passion: his chafing dish, which he named Chaffinda, was the only woman who could turn him from bachelordom. Senn's Cooking in stoneware (1905) and Marion Harris Neil's How to cook in casserole dishes ([1912]) dealt exclusively with cooking in casseroles. An apparently brief vogue for cooking food in paper bags encouraged six manuals on the subject in the two-year period 1910 to 1911.

Vegetarian cookery

The over seventy-five vegetarian cookery books described in the bibliography offered practical guidance to those concerned with the health and moral issues addressed by the vegetarian movement whose formal organisation in the United Kingdom was marked by the founding of the British Vegetarian Society in 1847.25 The history of the books reflects the development of the movement and the growing popular acceptance of its beliefs and practices over the period 1875 to 1914. Only a handful of vegetarian cookery books were written in the first quarter century or so of the society's existence and of the eight works that I have discovered first published in the fifteen years 1875 to 1889, six26 were connected with the society and its branches in some way, and one27 was published by the Philanthropic Reform Publishing Offices, an organisation which supported the vegetarian ideal. The remaining title of the eight, Miss Eleanor E. Orlebar's Food for the people; or, lentils and other vegetable cookery (1879), stands apart for its refreshing lack of dogma, possibly in part because it was not associated with the society.

From the 1890s onwards the output of vegetarian cookery books increased substantially,28 many of the works emanating from other sources than the Vegetarian Society, although the society's titles continued to be influential because of their long-running editions and large numbers of copies printed over the years.29 Two distinct features can be discerned within the large body of books published from the last decade of the nineteenth century to 1914, both indications that the vegetarian movement was well out of its infancy. The first feature, and a measure of the popular currency of vegetarian ideals from the 90s on, was the trend for such well-known mainstream authors as A. G. Payne, Beaty-Pownall, Kenney-Herbert, Isobel, Mrs Peel, Miss Florence Annie George and Senn to write vegetarian works.

The second feature was a great thematic diversity. There were collections of recipes for people on particular vegetarian diets, such as those who excluded not only fish, flesh and fowl but milk and eggs from their regimens,30 for followers of the uric-acid-free diet31 and for devotees of Dr Ha'nish's system.32 There were texts representing the cuisines of individual sanatoria or vegetarian residences,33 and of vegetarian restaurants.34 Some works had a national focus: Mrs Jean Oliver Mill should be admired for meeting the needs of Scottish vegetarians in her Reform cookery book (1904); Philip Edward Muskett, for drawing the attention of Australians to the potential uses of their own fresh garden produce in The book of diet ([1898]); and Maria Gironci, for seeing the possibilities of Italian cuisine for British vegetarians in Italian recipes for food reformers (1905). One text, written at the outset of World War One, offered a collection of vegetarian recipes deemed suitable for a civilian population in war time.35

Special diets

It should be remembered that the case for meat was just as strongly argued as that for vegetarianism in the literature of the time.36 Meat-eating remained the norm and recipes for meat, at the centre of general cookery books. Works taking the cooking of meat or the preparation of cold meat as their sole topic were referred to generally earlier, but one title deserves specific mention here as the carnivore's counterpart to the more extreme and eccentric vegetarian cookery manuals, A manual of what to eat and how to cook it for Salisbury patients (1897) by Anna K. Eccles which gives recipes for an all-meat diet.

In addition to the three books cited earlier on preparing temperance drinks, another three works gave instructions for temperance cookery generally.37 Their small number, especially in relation to vegetarian cookery books, belies the strength of the temperance movement and can be attributed to the fact that omitting alcohol from a conventional diet does not require as many fundamental changes to meal-planning and cookery practice as the exclusion of meat. The temperance cookery books in the bibliography do not represent a new subject category: the genre was established at least as early as 1841 in the United States.38

Constituting another group of works were texts written specifically about cooking for Christian fast days and feast days. The concept had been used before 1875, for example, in Cookery manual for days of fasting and abstinence (London, 1860). Of the six books of recipes that I have found for what was variously called Friday fare or fast-day, Lenten, or maigre cookery, Fast day and vegetarian cookery (1895) by E. M. Cowen and Mrs Beaty-Pownall, Meatless fare and Lenten cookery (1909) by Senn and possibly one other title39 intentionally bring together the compatible ideas of fast-day and vegetarian cookery thereby reaching a potentially larger audience. Two works were found devoted to the feast day of Christmas.

The first Jewish cookery book to be published in Britain was The jewish manual, edited by a lady [Lady Judith Montefiore] (1846). One year before its appearance, Eliza Acton's Modern cookery (1845) had included for the first time in a British cookery book40 a section of foreign and Jewish recipes. In the period 1875 to 1914 only a handful of titles were added to the meagre selection of Jewish culinary writings and it was often still the case that collections of Jewish recipes formed a chapter or appendix of a cookery book for a general (gentile) audience. Yet there was one significant development which was associated with the establishment of cookery classes within the public school system in England: the recognition by some School Boards that appropriate books were required for the teaching of cookery to Jewish students. School cookery texts in general are discussed below but it is important in the context of Jewish cookery books to draw attention here to Aunt Sarah's directions for teaching economical cookery, in Jewish schools and families (1877) in which the author articulates the need for school cookery classes adapted to Jewish dietary requirements, to the long-lasting success of The economical cook: a modern Jewish recipe book especially adapted as a class book for schools (1889) by Mrs May Henry and Miss Edith B. Cohen which ran through six editions up to 1937, and to Jewish cookery book compiled for use in the cookery centres under the School Board for London (1895) by Miss M. A. S. Tattersall who at the time of publication was Superintendent of Cookery to the London Board, one of the most influential of the English educational bodies.

Invalid cookery

Books about invalid cookery, also called convalescent or sickroom cookery and an established genre by 1875,41 constitute a major category in the bibliography. They were an important aid to those nursing the sick, an activity which was still centred in the home and which, in the absence of today's miracle drugs, relied greatly on the careful preparation and administration of the proper foods to assist the patient's comfort and recovery. Several doctors tackled the subject of cooking for the sick, as did a number of well-known writers on other culinary topics.42 Most of the books were written for the housewife cooking in the home although one title43 addresses the professional nurse and another44 encompasses cooking in home and in hospital. Published at the end of the period was a collection of recipes for those caring for the war wounded of 1914.45 Liquid foods46 and peptonised foods47 served as single themes for a book while some texts were organised by ailment.48 There were three volumes49 about cooking for diabetics: before the discovery of insulin in 1922, diet was the only means of controlling the effects of the disease.

Often subsumed under the heading of invalid cookery was the subject of cooking for babies.50 Only two titles in the bibliography deal just with that topic, The feeding of infants ([1880]) by the doctor, Thomas Carter Wigg, and Nursery cookery ([1900]) by Mrs Pillow and published at the offices of a woman's magazine under the editorship of Mrs Ballin. The latter work is notable for promoting the modern idea that eating should be a pleasant experience for babies and children, a notion running counter to the attitude still prevalent at the time that it was wrong to cultivate their sense of taste.

National cuisines

The considerable body of books devoted to the cuisines of other countries or geographical regions reveals a continuing interest in the cookery of Europe with which Britain had a long historical link - political and culinarary, and a growing curiosity about cooking in the colonies or other distant parts of the globe in which Britain had a national interest. Books presenting the cookery of other countries came from a variety of sources, a factor to consider in any study of the foreign influences on British cookery at the time: some were written by Britons; some by authors of foreign extraction living in the United Kingdom and writing in English; some were British editions of works originally published in other English-speaking countries; and some were translations into English of foreign-languange cookery books.

Books about French cuisine, which remained the predominant foreign influence on British practice, outnumbered those on the cookery of any other European nation. English translations of French cookery books and gastronomical works continued to serve as a direct vehicle for French ideas, as they had done since the early seventeenth century. Three translated works stood above the others from the period 1875 to 1914. Brillat-Savarin's Physiologie du gout was possibly the most highly regarded gastronomical treatise of the nineteenth century. First published in Paris in 1826, it had already appeared in an English-language edition in Britain in 1859, and was to be published in two different English translations over the period cover by the bibliography. Georges Auguste Escoffier's Le guide culinary (Paris, 1903), first translated into English in 1907 as A guide to modern cookery, became the authoritative text for the professional cook for the greater part of this century. The compilations of a French journalist, 366 menus and 1200 recipes of the Baron Brisse enjoyed continuous popularity with the British home cook from its translation into English in 1882 through to a tenth English edition published in 1909. In addition to translations, a wide selection of books written in English about French cookery was available to the general audience, bearing such typical titles as Easy French dishes for English cooked (Mrs Alfred Praga, 1900), Dinners, a la francais (Mary MacNaughtan, 1901) and French dishes for English tables (Claire de Pratz, [1908]).

Different emphases can be seen in some of the half-dozen books about Italian cookery. Two titles have already been mentioned, Leaves from our Tuscan kitchen (1899) by Janet Ross in connection with collections of vegetable recipes, and Italian recipes for food reformers (1905) by Maria Gironci, with vegetarian manuals. Many of the recipes in the latter book came from Gironci's Recipes of Italian cookery ([1892]). The cook's Decameron (1901) by Mrs Emily Waters aimed to be a study in taste as much as a gathering together of recipes. Interestingly, only one of the books in the bibliography about this national cuisine originated outside of Britain, Simple Italian cookery (1912) by Antonia Isola [Mabel Earl McGinnis], an American work.

In 1873 the anonymous German national cookery for English kitchens was published in London. Only one book on German cookery was to follow in the entire period up to 1914, Miss Ella Oswald's German cookery for the English kitchen (1906).51

The British reader was exposed to a wealth of material concerning the cuisine of the United States. A few titles specifically defined their topic as American cookery. Of these, the anonymous American dishes and how to cook them (1883) and American dainties and how to prepare them (1897) and Steedman's Home-made beverages and American drinks ([1908]) were British publications, while Felix Déliée's The Franco-American cookery book (1884), de Loup's The American salad book (1901) and Mrs Gesine Lemcke's European and American cuisine (1914) all originated in the United States. However, books did not have to be labelled as American cookery to convey something about that subject for there were many British editions of American works, often of a general nature but also about particular topics, by such popular authors as Marion Harland and Mrs Sarah Tyson Rorer, and by lesser-known writers. These trans-Atlantic editions, which adapted themselves in varying degrees to British ingredients and methods of measurement, represented American culinary practice whether they drew attention to their source or not. The many references in the bibliography to American editions of British cookery books are evidence of the cultural tide flowing in the other direction.

In contrast, the culinary dialogue between Britain and Canada was almost exclusively one way, west.52 Apart from one Canadian work published in a British edition, The new cook book ([1907]) by Lady Gay [Mrs Grace Elizabeth Denison],53 information about Canadian cookery was limited to occasional recipes labelled Canadian in British cookery books.

The first book about Australian cookery was published in London in 1864.54 Of the titles on the topic in the bibliography, those by Muskett, Mrs H. F. Wicken and Mrs Hannah Maclurcan were written by and for established residents of that country.55 Muskett's The art of living in Australia ([1893]) is noteworthy for assessing the eating habits of Australians, for suggesting how they could better use their fresh food products, and for insisting that the recipes contributed to his book by Mrs Wicken should be specifically for Australian use. The Australasian cookery book (1913) was an anonymous work published by Ward, Lock and was partly intended for new emigrants to Australia and New Zealand.

Of the two volumes in the bibliography on South African cookery, both by Miss Hildagonda Duckitt, Hilda's Where is it? of recipes (1891) was the first ever compilation of specifically South African recipes, including as it did dishes from the various racial groups of the Cape, and was long considered definitive by South African housewives.

Britain, among other nations, was also active in exploring and exploiting other parts of the African continent and two books, close in date, are concerned with West Africa in particular: Sister Adelaide Cockburn's A practical guide to cookery in West Africa and the tropics ([1905]) and G. Ruxton's and Sylvia Leith-Ross' Practical West African cookery (1910). Another tropical destination for Britons was the West Indies and culinary advice specific to one island could be found in Caroline Sullivan's The Jamaica cookery book (third edition, 1908).

The nineteenth century saw the expansion and consolidation of the colonial administration in India. The earliest books to be published in Britain about Indian cookery date from the 1830s56 and were collections of genuine recipes. By the last quarter of the century, however, most writers on the topic presented an anglicised version of the cuisine. For example, although Henrietta Hervey, the wife of a retired Indian officer, strove to offer authentic recipes from all parts of the country in her slim Anglo-Indian cookery at home (1895), Mrs Grace Johnson was more typical in defining the Anglo-Indian cookery she presents in Anglo-Indian and Oriental cookery ([1893]) as 'Oriental cookery modified by English, French and Italian methods'. Both texts were primarily for English cooks in England and, in Hervey's case, specifically 'for returned exiles'. Other authors, such as Kenney-Herbert, W.H. Dawe, Miss Poynter and Mrs Temple-Wright, wrote for British women running households in India. Their aim was to adapt British cuisine to Indian conditions, but all include directions for Indian dishes.

All these volumes were part of the process by which Indian dishes were adopted, modified and incorporated into the British repertoire. Curries: and how to prepare them ([1903]) by Joseph Edmunds is an indication of the extent to which that process had taken place by about the turn of the century. The work could be described as 'curries by committee' for Edmunds, who incidentally sold his own brand of curry powder, submitted his selection of recipes to a cookery teacher and 'eminent chefs de cuisine' for additions, deletions and emendations. In contrast, The curry cook's assistant (first issued as a small pamphlet in 1887) by Daniel Santiagoe shows a continuing British interest in new material from the East, in this case the colony of Ceylon.

ILLUSTRATION: Text page from The curry cook's assistant (entry 928.1)

scanned image of Text page from The curry cook's assistant (entry 928.1)

In addition to books about the cuisines of individual countries, there were collections of recipes representing a variety of locations. One notable work, Robert H. Christie's Banquets of the nations (1911), gives dinners from eighty-six different cultures. Instructions for dishes from such diverse countries as Greece, Turkey, Sweden and Holland are found in Recipes from East and West ([1912]) by Euterpe Craies. Some collections, such as National viands a la mode (1895) by de Salis and the anonymous 365 dishes of all nations (1908), are more popular than authentic and scholarly.

ILLUSTRATION: Frontispiece from Recipes from East and West by Euterpe Craies (entry 251.1)

scanned image of Frontispiece from Recipes from East and West

British writers also evinced a strong interest in their own cuisine, firstly, through collections of recipes such as May Byron's Pot-luck or the British home cookery book ([1914]), the few books about Scottish cookery, and books on the use of the still-room which indicate a concern to preserve traditional practice; secondly, through bibliographies of British cookery books and histories about British cookery which ranged from such serious works as A. W. Oxford's English cookery books to the year 1850 (1913) to the more relaxed accounts of English culinary history, Senn's Ye art of cookery in ye olden time ([1896]); and thirdly, through facsimiles and reprints of older British cookery books.

The teaching of cookery

Cookery text-books, listed under Education in the subject index, constitute a large and distinct genre. They were written for cookery classes in what were called training schools, for classes in state elementary schools and for classes in schools run by private individuals. The story of state school texts follows the emergence of the training schools in the private sphere at almost exactly the starting-point of the bibliography.

The first and most influential of the training schools, the National Training School for Cookery (hereafter, NTSC) was founded in London in 1874. By 1877 there were training schools in Liverpool, Leeds, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Manchester and Leicester, and by 1894 all of the almost thirty training schools were founded.57 The training schools sought to improve the general standard of cookery, particularly of the lower classes. To this end they trained teachers of cookery and offered courses to cooks and to women who of necessity would be without the help of a hired cook in the home. Artisan cookery, and how to teach it (1877) by an unnamed former pupil of the NTSC reveals the patronising and presumptuous attitude of some of the early graduates of the training schools. The author, a gentlewoman who admittedly knew nothing of cookery at the outset of her course, describes how, struck by her perception of the working classes' wasteful ignorance in cookery matters, she resolved to train at the NTSC and then set up cookery classes in her own town. Most training schools produced their own texts and reprinted them continuously over a long span of years. Probably the most well known of these text-books was The official handbook for the National Training School for Cookery by R. O. C. [Miss Rose Owen Cole] which was published in many British editions from 1877 to 1924 and in an American edition of 1878. Each recipe in the book is numbered as an individual lesson and written as it would have been demonstrated, in the form of numbered instructions given in the second person plural. The book was widely regarded as authoritative. Mrs Edith Clarke, the long-serving Lady Superintendent of the NTSC, prepared several collections of recipes for the school whose titles clearly reflect the various levels of cookery taught, for example, Plain cookery recipes (1883), High-class cookery recipes (1885) and Artizan recipes to illustrate the principles of cookery (second edition, 1895). Training school texts are a feature of every decade covered by the bibliography, and from the NTSC's first handbook of 1877 to Household cookery recipes (1914), a publication of the Battersea Polytechnic Domestic Science Department, one can follow the evolution of the training schools from their founding as private cookery schools to grant-earning departments within the state technical colleges.

In England local authorities had been required to provide schooling since 1870. Although cookery was taught in elementary schools as part of domestic economy from the mid 70s and occasionally on its own on an experimental basis, cookery classes only began to be established in numbers after the Education Code of 1882 made cookery a grant-earning subject.58 Nevertheless, there were some books predating the Code of 1882 which addressed elementary scholars or described themselves as for elementary schools. J. C. Buckmaster's Cookery (1877) was part of a series aimed at elementary scholars, while Mrs Greenup's Food and its preparation (1878) is a transcript of lectures given to groups of girls from elementary schools. Catherine Buckton, as the first woman member of the Leeds School Board, introduced cookery classes into Leeds schools well before 1882. Her Food and home cookery: a course of instruction in practical cookery and cleaning, for children in elementary schools, as followed in the schools of the Leeds School Board (first edition, 1879; new edition, 1883, revised in accordance with the Code of 1882) served as a model for other teachers and authors.

The introduction and advancement of cookery teaching in the state schools depended to a great extent on the initiatives and involvement of the training schools. Not only were they instrumental in persuading the Education Department to establish the code and in developing the scheme of instruction to be carried out under it, but graduates of the training schools were the main source of teachers, most feeding directly into the state school system after 188259 and often the authors of class texts. For example, Mrs Margaret Black, a graduate of the NTSC and founder of the West-End Training School of Cookery, wrote Cookery and domestic economy (an edition, 1891) and Cookery for schools ([about 1899]), both in Collins' school series. Even humbler persons produced texts, and among others were Miss J. Loveday, also a graduate of the NTSC and author of First course of cookery lessons for use in elementary schools ([1893]) and Miss L. W. Stoddart, another graduate of the NTSC and author of Plain cookery recipes, specially compiled for practice lessons in elementary schools and classes for technical instruction ([1893]). Miss C. E. Guthrie Wright, Honorary Secretary of the Edinburgh School of Cookery, wrote a highly respected text, The school cookery book (first edition, 1879; republished several times up to 1930).

A number of text-books professed a wider application and classified themselves for school and home, such as Lessons in practical cookery for school and home use (1891) compiled by Mary MacNaughtan. From about the turn of the century state school text-books were written in a less rigid form and in a livelier vein, an improvement due directly to changes in the Education Department's requirements of schools for grant-earning status. Formulaic and generally unappealing cookery literature some of the school texts may be; however, they deserve study for coming at the introduction of public education in England and their influence should never be under-estimated for they had a wide exposure to thousands of school-girls in their formative years.

Cookery books were also written by the owner-principals of private schools of cookery. Set apart from the training schools and the cookery classes in the state school system, each establishment was a separate entity, unique in character and purpose. The owner-principals of these schools followed the practice of the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century teaching-cooks60 who wrote cookery manuals for, and taught by demonstration the art of cookery to, a genteel clientele. A few exceptions, such as Herr Willy, were professional confectioners or bakers and ran schools with a purely vocational purpose. Some of the books emanating from the private schools were arranged by lesson and meant to be used specifically in conjunction with the classes, for example, High-class sweetmaking ([1910]) by Mrs Whyte who ran a school of sweet-making out of her home in Birkenhead. Others, such as the works of Mrs A. B. Marshall of Marshall's School of Cookery in London, were not text-books organised for the purpose of formal study. Although no doubt employed at the schools, they were compiled for general reference and clearly intended to reach a wider audience than the enrolled students.

Elementary school cookery texts were not the only culinary writings aimed at children. A few cookery books were meant for girls to read and use in their own homes for pleasure. The majority are in a narrative form. While Mrs Warren's How the lady-help taught girls to cook and be useful (1879) is perhaps more overtly instructional than most, Mrs Louisa Tate's The child's cookery book ([1887]) and Mrs Lucy Crump's Three little cooks (1905) are simply and delightfully entertaining. The Mary Frances cook book (first British edition, 1914) by Mrs Fryer, one of two books of American origin for children, appeals to its young readers by the lavish use of illustrations.

ILLUSTRATION: Title-page of The child's cookery book (entry 1049.1)

scanned image of Title-page of The child's cookery book

Proliferating genres of cookery books

Cookery books were also directed at small households of only two persons and at people living on their own. A bachelor's cupboard (1906) by A. Lyman Phillips was for the American single man and reiterates the prejudices associated with bachelorhood on both sides of the Atlantic. The British work, The bachelor girl's cookery book ([1910]) by Mrs May Henry and Jeannette Halford, is a more fascinating social document as it identifies and fills the need for a cookery book for the many women just then starting to live, in the authors' words, independent lives.

Writers applied themselves to the circumstances of cooking on board a boat and works on nautical cookery span the entire period of the bibliography, the earliest being James B. Wilson's Ship's cook and steward's guide (1876). The first formal cookery classes for seamen were offered at the Liverpool Training School of Cookery, taught by Miss E. E. Mann and taken over from her by Alexander Quinlan. From their collaboration came Cookery for seamen (1894). At the end of the period S. J. Housley covered the topic of cooking in a pleasure yacht in Comfort in small craft (1911).

Further evidence of the diversity of cookery writing in the period can be seen in two titles. Books and my food (1906) by Elisabeth L. Cary and Annie M. Jones is a thoughtful collection of recipes inspired by literary quotations,61 while the standard cookery book form and recipe-writing formula were themselves a vehicle for humour in The comic cookery book (1891) by Fred Hull Curtiss.

ILLUSTRATION: Page from The comic cookery book by Fred Curtiss, 1891 (entry 264.1)

scanned image of The comic cookery book by Fred Curtiss, 1891 (entry 264.1)

Three cookery books inspired by the outbreak of World War One and published in the last four and a half months of 1914 make a surprising, last-minute addition to the variety of themes represented in the bibliography.62

Fund-raising books

New to British culinary writing was a category of book compiled and published with the express purpose of raising money for a charitable cause. Typically, fund-raising cookery books were produced by a church women's group or other organisation and were collections of recipes of a general nature contributed by supporters of the group. Although the genre had originated in the United States at the time of the American Civil War and was well established there by the mid 1870s,63 it made its début in Britain only at the end of the century. The earliest cookery book in the bibliography whose profits were allocated to charity is Lady Sarah Lindsay's A few choice recipes (1883); however, this work is not characteristic of later fund-raising cookery books in that it was not a co-operative venture but the result entirely of the efforts of the author who does not specify the intended recipient of the proceeds. The first true example of this class of book is My favourite recipes (1896), the profits from which were to benefit the Cripples Home at Gosforth, and which features a selection of over five hundred recipes chosen by an unnamed female compiler from the contributions of the many people credited in the book's introductory matter.

From 1900 onwards a steady flow of fund-raising cookery books was published in Britain. However homespun these booklets may be, written as they usually were by amateurs and issued in small print-runs of limited distribution, they do have significance. Often the production of a single community, they reflect regional fashion and present a more specific sampling of what local people cooked than the recipe collections of professional authors distributed to the mass market by the big publishers. One fund-raiser deserving particular mention in this regard is Sophia and Louisa Morrison's Manx cookery book (1908), the only work in English in the period to cover the distinctive dishes of the Isle of Man. Moreover, while traditional recipes for standard family fare made up most of the contents, sometimes also included were foreign recipes from friends and relatives living abroad, making fund-raising cookery books an important route for the integration of foreign recipes into British practice. It was the rule in fund-raising books that each recipe was credited with the donor's name and address; therefore, it is almost always possible to know a recipe's most recent provenance, whether home or abroad.

Gastronomy

In gastronomical treatises authors took a step away from the practical and specific and addressed in more general terms the art or science of good eating. Two gastronomical works were reprints of early nineteenth-century writings: Brillat-Savarin's previously cited Physiologic du gout and Thomas Walker's Aristology or the art of dining (1881), a reprint in book form of essays which first appeared in a periodical of 1835. Serious dissertations on the art of eating originating in Britain in the period include John C. Jeaffreson's A book about the table (1875), de Salis' The art of cookery past and present (1898) and Ellwanger's The pleasures of the table (1902), all of which are written in a historical context. Four doctors, Sir Henry Thompson, J. M. Fothergill, J. L. W. Thudichum and C. F. L. Leipoldt, brought to their gastronomical discussions in varying degrees a medical or scientific viewpoint. Kettner's book of the table (1877), only correctly attributed to E. S. Dallas well into the twentieth century, emanated from a well-known restaurant. Senn's Practical gastronomy and culinary dictionary (1892) was not so much an offering of original thought as a famous chef' s guide to the existing body of philosophical and practical culinary knowledge, based upon biographical sketches and quotations from other sources. Gastronomical writing also encompassed lighter musings and collections of random observations whose aim was to entertain as much as to inform, such as the works of Harry Blyth, Fin-Bec [William Blanchard Jerrold], Wanderer [Elim Henry d'Avigdor], and Edward Spencer [Edward Spencer Mott].

Of American works published in British editions, the most outstanding was The feasts of Autolycus (1896) by Elizabeth Pennell, a cultured woman with a great love and knowledge of both food and old cookery books. Pennell was right to point out in the introduction to her book that her gender distinguished her from most other writers on gastronomical matters.

General cookery manuals

If readers could consult books on a wide range of particular subjects, including the above-mentioned works of a more philosophical nature, there existed a large number of general cookery manuals from which to choose. Towering above the majority of average-size, run-of-the-mill texts are the monumental general works which, like gastronomical treatises, were written mainly, although not exclusively, by men. The encyclopaedia of practical cookery ([early 1890s]) is a huge, multiple-volume publication compiled by Theodore Garrett from the contributions of several professional male cooks. The stature among chefs of Georges Escoffier's A guide to modern cookery (1907) has been referred to. Senn's The new century cookery book (1901) is a massive tome, complete with facsimiles of menus devised for the most sophisticated in society. From Alessandro Filippini, formerly chef of Delmonico's, a renowned New York restaurant, came two large works, The table (1889) and The international cook book (1906). Mrs Beeton's Household management was a significant exception to the male rule. It maintained its place, established in the 1860s, as the bible for the home kitchen although it met a challenger in Cassell's dictionary of cookery ([about 1875?]), a major anonymous reference work. Among the few substantial texts by women in the period were Mrs A. B. Marshall's cookery book ([1888]) and the same author's Larger cookery book ([1891]), and after the turn of the century two lavishly illustrated works, Katharine Mellish's Cookery and domestic management (an edition, 1901) and Margaret Fairclough's The ideal cookery book (1911), the latter of which was popular up to the 1950s. Mrs de Salis, Mrs Peel and Miss Jack each wrote a series of cookery books which, although not single monumental works, when collected together represent a considerable achievement, albeit produced in incremental steps.

The Writers

Produced primarily by men for a male audience, the gastronomical treatises and monumental general works which end this survey of the period's astonishing array of different topics are not characteristic of the body of books described in the bibliography. Typically, the cookery books of the time were written by women for the home cook. Less grandiose affairs, they are usually not well known, and frequently not held in public collections nor previously recorded in existing bibliographies. While female authors are in the majority in most subject classifications, fund-raising cookery books and school texts were almost exclusively in their domain and they dominated in the category of the general cookery manual for the home. Since most cooking was done by women in the home kitchen, either by the mistress herself or by a hired female cook on her instructions, women were qualified to write about the subject because of their practical domestic experience, and their voice was the appropriate one to address an audience that was predominantly of their gender. Male authors, on the other hand, generally belonged to the small coterie of professional chefs working in restaurants and clubs, were doctors or scientists bringing a technical concern to food preparation, or were gentleman epicures more interested in gastronomical discussion than daily routine.

While the expanding book market provided the opportunity, it undoubtedly took considerable initiative on the part of individual women to write and have published their cookery books. The bibliographic entries reveal some of the routes women found to authorship. Many were aided by social or family ties. A few were ladies of privilege.64 While some women were able to call upon their family connections in the publishing world,65 female journalists,66 already established in publishing, made an easy leap from the newspaper or magazine column to the bound volume. Some women were related to men in the culinary field,67 or were daughters in families owning a business that sold kitchen equipment.68

Others were motivated by, and drew upon, the mutual support and encouragement of female friends and family members. The bibliography contains, for example, separate works by related authors,69 a number of instances of women co-authors,70 not necessarily related to each other, and a few husband-and-wife teams. Many women cookery authors emerged from the educational field71 as it was an easy progression first to teach the subject and then to have published the lessons and recipes. From the turn of the century fund-raising cookery books were an easy way for an interested amateur to become involved in a cookery book's production in co-operation with others.

To date scholarly enquiry into the cookery books of the period 1875 to 1914 has, of necessity, been limited to the well-known works. While no doubt titles have slipped through the net, if the bibliography succeeds in providing a wide picture of the variety of subject matter and an indication of the scale of the contribution of the lesser-known works to the body of culinary literature, it will also have achieved its broader purpose: to open up this exciting field to the full scrutiny the books deserve.

Notes and references

  1. Cookery books published by companies to promote their product(s), whether kitchen equipment or foodstuffs, and cookery books issued, usually by a church women's group, to raise money for a charitable cause, are elusive objects. They are seldom held by the copyright libraries and many did not survive the passage of time in significant numbers because of their often small size, cheap paper and flimsy binding. Fund-raising cookery books, in particular, were usually issued in one edition only, in a small print-run, and their distribution was limited to their local area. I was occasionally lucky to come across a reference to a promotional or fund-raising cookery book, previously unknown to me, in a bookseller's catalogue. In the case of a promotional cookery book, I found that turning to the company archives, if the company still existed, often yielded a copy of the book. For a fund-raising cookery book a query to the congregation through the vicar or minister proved to be a successful method of locating a copy.
  2. For an analysis of the boom in book publishing generally in the period under discussion see Richard Daniel Altick, The English common reader: a social history of the mass reading public 1800 - 1900 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1957); Philip Gaskell, A new introduction to bibliography (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1972); and Marjorie Plant, The English book trade: an economic history of the making and sale of books (third edition, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1974; first edition published 1939).
  3. The following is only a sample of the many extended publishing histories recorded in the bibliography. Miss Hildagonda Duckitt's Hilda's Where is it? of recipes sustained its appeal from 1891 to 1925. Nancy Lake's Menus made easy ([1884]) was republished regularly right up to 1939. After an interlude, presumably due to the economic restraints of the second World War, a revised edition, faithful to the original, appeared in 1954. Two editions of Helen N. Lawson's The A 1 cookery book appeared in 1901; other editions followed in 1905, 1907, 1934, 1946 and 1947. Mrs Eliza Walker Kirk's Book of tried favourites (1900), retitled from the second edition Tried favourites cookery book, was extremely popular: the last edition that I have found is dated 1948 and numbered twenty-sixth edition, seven hundred and thirty-second thousand. The verso of the title-page of the 1950 edition of Miss Florence Annie George's King Edward's cookery book records a first edition in 1901, twenty-one reprintings between 1902 and 1946, and a second edition in 1950. Editions of Mrs May Henry's and Miss Kate Halford's Dainty dinners and dishes for Jewish families were published in 1902, 1907, 1916 and 1951. An olio of proved recipes and domestic wrinkles (1905), later retitled The olio cookery book, by Miss L. Sykes was regularly reprinted right up to the twenty-first impression of 1954.
  4. Georgiana Hill wrote a short text on potato cookery which appeared bound together with three other works in How to cook apples, eggs, rabbits and potatoes in one hundred different ways (1867). Eighteenth-century examples include Maclean 144, Two new and curious essays: ...concerning the best methods of pruning fruit-trees [and] a discourse concerning the various ways of preparing and dressing potatoes for the table (London, 1732) and Maclean 84, An account of the manner in which potatoes are cultivated and preserved in the counties of Lancaster and Chester (Warrington, 1796) by H. Kirkpatrick.
  5. The Irish potato famine of 1845 sparked an interest in corn as an alternative food source. A book extolling the value of American corn for the British people was published in New York in 1845, Maize or Indian corn, a cheap and nutritional food for poor and labouring classes of Great Britain and Ireland; with directions for its use by John Sherren Bartlett. British publications followed. See, for example, Maize, or Indian corn: its advantages as a cheap and nutritious article of food (London, 1846) by Bartlett, the 1846 edition of William Cobbett's Cottage economy which was revised to include new recipes for the grain, The American Indian meal and hominy receipt book; being a collection of American receipts adapted to the English taste (Nottingham, 1847) by an unidentified author, and Food for the million, maize against potato (London, 1847) by Amicus Curiae [Henry W. Simpson].
  6. A facsimile reprint edited by C. Anne Wilson was published by Prospect Books Ltd in 1984.
  7. For example, some of the titles in the Beeton's house and home books series and Georgiana Hill's previously cited works and her How to cook vegetables (1868).
  8. For instance, Martha Careful [pseudonym], Household hints to young housewives, with the arrangements and receipts for forty dinners (London, 1851), or Edward Litt Laman Blanchard, A handy book on dinners (London, 1860), among others.
  9. The breakfast book: a cookery-book for the morning meal, or breakfast table (London, 1865) is an early example.
  10. Arnold Palmer, Movable feasts: a reconnaissance of the origins and consequences of fluctuations in meal-times with special attention to the introduction of luncheon and afternoon tea (London, New York and Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1952). A new edition, brought up to date by David Pocock, was published in 1984.
  11. An American book, Luncheon by Thomas Jefferson Murrey, had been published in New York in 1888 (Axford 254).
  12. Recherchée side dishes for breakfast, luncheon, dinner and supper (1893), Breakfast and supper dishes (1898), Savoury breakfast, dinner and supper dishes ([1901 or 1904?]), Popular breakfast dishes and savouries ([1909]), and Ideal breakfast dishes, savouries and curries ([1910]).
  13. See the works of Mrs S. Beaty-Pownall, Miss Rose Brown, Miss Annie M. Griggs, Miss Jack, Mary Pope, A. Bautte and Mrs Dorothy Constance Peel.
  14. They include books by Miss Jack, Beaty-Pownall, Mrs Alfred Praga, Miss C. L. Howland, Miss Rose Brown, Mrs Peel and Senn.
  15. For example, the anonymous Favourite puddings of rural England ([1899]) and More favourite puddings of rural England (date unknown) in the Cable series, Puddings (1900) and Extra puddings ([1908]) by Miss Rose Brown, Sweets: Part I (1901) and Sweets: Part II (1901) by Beaty-Pownall, and Hot puddings, soufflées and fritters (1903) and Cold sweets, jellies and creams (1904) by Miss Jack.
  16. See Chapter 1, The story of puddings, in Mary Norwak, English puddings: sweet and savoury (London: Batsford, [1981]).
  17. Both Margery Dow's home confectionery ([1891]) by Lucy W. Bostwick and The correct art of candy-making (1894) by Robert Morrison originated in the United States.
  18. For example, How to make ices (London: privately printed by Biertumpfel and Son, 1831).
  19. The book of one hundred beverages for family use (London, 1850) by William Bemhard and The book of summer drinks, ice water, curds and whey, lemonade (London, [1851]) are but two earlier works on the subject of drinks.
  20. Born in the United States at the start of the nineteenth century, the temperance movement's British beginnings were in Ireland and Scotland in the 1820s, the first formal London organisation following in 1831. Well established in Britain by the end of the century, its political influence waned after World War One. See Brian Harrison, Drink and the Victorians: the temperance question in England 1815-1872 (London: Faber and Faber, [1971]).
  21. See Robert Wells, Pleasant drinks ([1908]); Miss M. E. Steedman, Home-made beverages and American drinks ([1908]); Drinks and how to make them ([1909]); Helen Greig Souter, Aunt Kate's home-made drinks ([1911]); and The little book of sandwiches and beverages ([1912]).
  22. On page 72 of A woman's work is never done: a history of housework in the British Isles 1650-1950 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1982) Caroline Davidson points out that the two especially significant changes in cooking technology over the three centuries she has surveyed were the introduction of the enclosed multi-purpose cooking range in the 1810s and gas and electric cookers in the 1880s and 1890s, respectively. She discusses their impact on housework and cooking. See also Home fires burning: the history of domestic heating and cooking by Laurence Wright (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964).
  23. Regrettably, no known cookery book resulted from Margaret Fairclough's audacious and forward-looking venture, her establishment of the School of Electric Cookery in London in 1894. She was later to write The ideal cookery book (1911), a massive general work.
  24. The exception is Murrey's Cookery with a chafing dish (1891).
  25. The theory or practice of limiting man's diet to vegetable foods has a long history, stretching back to Pythagorus, the Greek philosopher and mathematician, and before. There had been some interest in vegetarian diet in eighteenth-century Britain and Maclean cites two explicitly vegetarian titles (one by Cocchi, Maclean 29, and an anonymous work, Primitive cookery, Maclean 119); but it was not until the early part of the nineteenth century in Britain that a number of major and influential tracts developing the health, moral and spiritual arguments for vegetarianism were published, and only in 1847 that the movement was formally organised. For a history of vegetarianism from early times see Janet Barkas, The vegetable passion: a history of the vegetarian state of mind (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975, or New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, [1975]) and Terence McLaughlin, A diet of tripe: the chequered history of food reform (Newton Abbot, London and Vancouver: David and Charles, [1978]). Both authors devote a chapter to vegetarianism in Britain in the nineteenth century. Barkas also discusses eighteenth-century British forerunners. Charles Walter Forward in Fifty years of food reform: a history of the vegetarian movement in England (London: The Ideal Publishing Union Ltd; Manchester: The Vegetarian Society, 1898) gives a contemporary's account of the vegetarian movement in England in the second half of the nineteenth century from a naturally biassed perspective. Other sources of information may be found in Judith C. Dyer's Vegetarianism: an annotated bibliography (New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1982). The Vegetarian Society still exists and the library at its headquarters in Altrincham, Cheshire, was a useful resource for this bibliography.
  26. The vegetist's dietary and manual of vegetable cookery (1876) by Domestica [Miss Baker] is described on the title-page as compiled for the Vegetarian Society of England; Food reform cookery book (third edition, [1881]) by Thirza Tarrant was a society handbook up to the turn of the century when it was replaced by Albert Broadbent's Recipes for forty vegetarian dinners; How to spend sixpence (second edition, 1881) by W. M. Wright was sold by the society and advertised in its magazine; Dr Nichols' penny vegetarian cookery (third edition, 1883) was written by Dr Thomas Low Nichols, a prominent member of the society and a contributor to its magazine; The Hygeian Home cook-book (first English edition, 1883) by Russell Thacher Trall was published at the Ofiices of The Vegetarian Society; and The best diet for a working man ([1889]) by R. E. O'Callaghan was published by The London Vegetarian Society.
  27. 366 menus ([1885]) by Mrs Chandos Leigh Hunt Wallace.
  28. Taking into account undated works for which I have had to estimate the date of the first edition, there were about fifteen new vegetarian titles in the 1890s, about forty-one in the ten years from 1900 to 1909 and twelve from 1910 to 1914.
  29. For example, 195,000 copies of Albert Broadbent's Recipes for forty vegetarian dinners were printed in various editions from its first publication in 1900.
  30. Rupert H. Wheldon, No animal food (1910).
  31. For example, Mrs A. Webster and Mrs F. W. Jessop, The Apsley cookery book (1905).
  32. Dr Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish, Mazdaznan dietetics and cookery-book ([copyright 1914]).
  33. For example, Every-day dishes and every-day work (1897) by Mrs Ella Ervilla Kellogg gives the recipes of an American sanatorium; The Broadlands cookery-book (1910) by Kate Emil Behnke and E. Colin Henslowe, the recipes of a British vegetarian residence.
  34. See Andrew Glendinning, Andrew Glendinning's Apple Tree cookery book (1902) and Eustace Hamilton Miles, Eustace Miles Restaurant recipes (second edition, 1906).
  35. George W. Hall, Food in war time ([about 1914]).
  36. See McLaughlin, op cit, page 58. The pro-meat faction could draw on the studies of Baron Justus von Liebig who, in the 1820s, 30s and 40s, had laid the foundation for a scientific understanding of the nutritional value of meat.
  37. See the cookery books of Miss Mary E. Docwra, Mrs Fanny Lea Gillette and Mrs Eben. Maclean.
  38. Lowenstein 275 cites Temperance cook book, by a lady [Miss C. A. Neal] (Philadelphia: 1841).
  39. Fast-day cookery or meals without meat (1893) by Mrs Grace Johnson.
  40. Leonard N. Beck, Two loaf-givers - or a tour through the gastronomic libraries of Katherine Golden Bitting and Elizabeth Robins Pennell (Washington: Library of Congress, 1984), page 121.
  41. The invalid's own book (second edition, 1856) by the Honourable Lady Cust and A manual of diet for the invalid and dyspeptic, with a few hints on nursing (1869) by Duncan Turner (both cited in Cooks Books Catalogue 40) are but two titles from the period before 1875.
  42. For example, such popular authors as Phyllis Browne [Mrs Sarah Sharp Hamer], Miss Lizzie Heritage, Lucy Yates and Senn. Florence B. Jack's considerable and varied output of cookery books began with a collection of recipes for the sick, The art of cooking for invalids in the home and the hospital (1896).
  43. Miss E. M. Worsnop and M. C. Blair, The nurse's handbook of cookery (1897).
  44. Miss Florence B. Jack, op cit, footnote 42.
  45. Jessie M. Laurie, A war cookery book for the sick and wounded ([1914]).
  46. Mary Bullar and John Follet Bullar, Receipts for fluid foods (1887).
  47. Complete directions for the preparation of peptonised foods for infants and invalids ([1898]) was a promotional publication of Fairchild Digestive Products.
  48. Phyllis Browne [Mrs Sarah Sharp Hamer] and a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Diet and cookery for common ailments (1894).
  49. See Frederick James; W. H. Poole and Mrs Poole; and Senn.
  50. Books which included instructions for preparing baby foods did not usually indicate so in their titles. Exceptions were Complete directions cited in footnote 47, and Victor E. Hanna's The Dublin infant and invalid medical cookery book (1913).
  51. The impact of German cookery on American cuisine was much greater and German recipes sometimes found their way to the United Kingdom in a circuitous route, via British editions of American cookery books.
  52. The reasons for this go beyond the scope of this introduction and have to do with the state of English Canadian culture and cuisine at the time which was then, as even now to some degree, defined by English Canadians in relation to American and British ways upon which they were heavily reliant. French Canadians have a separate culinary history.
  53. Lady Gay's book was also published in the United States in various editions. It is a wry comment on Canadian cookery that some of these editions masqueraded under the title of The American home cook book.
  54. [Edward Abbott], The English and Australian cookery book. By an Australian aristologist. (London, 1864).
  55. Muskett was a Sydney surgeon; Wicken, a well-known cookery teacher in Sydney; Mrs Maclurcan, a former owner of a Townsville hotel.
  56. Indian cookery, as practised and described by the natives of the East (Oriental Translation Fund, 1831) by Sandford Arnot may be the first work in English on Indian cookery. Receipts for cooking the most favourite dishes in general use in India ([about 1835]; modern facsimile published by l. Devereux, Hastings, East Sussex) by Hadjee Allee is another early text.
  57. Helen Sillitoe, A history of the teaching of domestic subjects (1933), pages 27 and 110-111.
  58. See Sillitoe, page 41, for statistics concerning the growth in numbers of cookery classes. See also the Introduction to Dena Attar's Household books published in Britain 1800-1914 (London: Prospect Books, 1987), for further discussion of the implications of this growth.
  59. Sillitoe, pages 78-79, relates how the training schools had difficulty meeting the increasing demand for qualified cookery teachers, despite the founding of a number of new training schools in the early 1890s.
  60. The best known of these teaching-cooks are Mrs Tillinghast, Mrs Maciver, Mrs Frazer and Mrs Raffald.
  61. Although originally an American publication issued later in a British edition, the literary and culinary material is drawn mainly from English sources.
  62. Violet M. Falkiner, The allies book of recipes (1914); George W. Hall, op cit; and Jessie M. Laurie, op cit.
  63. Margaret Cook, America's charitable cooks: a bibliography of fund-raising cook books published in the United States (1861-1915) (Kent, Ohio: 1971).
  64. For example, Janet Ross, Lady Sarah Lindsay and Georgiana, Countess of Dudley.
  65. Mrs Florence Daniel's husband, C. W. Daniel, was her publisher; Mrs Frederick [Mrs Georgiana Macmillan] was the wife of Frederick Macmillan of Macmillan and Co, the publisher of her book; Phyllis Browne [Mrs Sarah Sharp Hamer] wrote cookery manuals for Cassell and Co for whom members of her family worked. In addition, some entries in the bibliography point to suspected but unconfirmed family ties between author and publisher: Florence B. Jack's works were published by T. C. and E. C. Jack; Jessie M. Laurie's book, by T. Werner Laurie; the early editions of Lilian Clarke's The ideal cookery book, by Brumby and Clarke Ltd; and Mrs A. Pettigrew's fund-raising Cookery book was printed by Alex Pettigrew.
  66. Myra [Matilda Browne], Aunt Kate [Helen Greig Souter], Mrs Humphry, Mrs S. Beaty-Pownall and Isobel were all journalists first, cookery-book authors second.
  67. Rose Owen Cole, who wrote the NTSC's handbook, was the daughter of Sir Henry Cole, a founder of the school. Mrs Edith Clarke, author of several books for, and Lady Superintendent of, the NTSC, was a family friend of Sir Henry and would not have embarked on her culinary career without his inspiration.
  68. For instance, Marie Jenny Sugg and Mrs H. M. Young previously referred to in the discussion of books on cooking by gas.
  69. A single title by Miss S. Thwaites followed after several previously published works by Mrs Isabella Thwaites. Both authors lived in Liverpool and were possibly mother and daughter.
  70. Mrs May Henry and Miss Kate Halford were sisters and co-authors; Jeannette Halford was most likely related to them and co-authored a book with May Henry. Sophia and Louisa Morrison, and Annie and Mary Nield, must also have been related. Apparently unrelated co-authors include, among others, Atkinson and Holroyd, Bradley and Crooke, Burrill and Booth, Earle and Bryan, Earle and Case, Edden and Moser, Groome and Little, Halford and Model, Henry and Cohen, Nicholson and Cole, Stewart and Christie, Truman and Sykes, Webster and Jessop, and Weston and Silvester. Further research may well show family connections between some of these women.
  71. It was also in the educational sphere, on School Boards, that women took up their first political positions.